Specialized Cells Key Notes
All living things must contain cells to be classified as an organism.
Animal cells and Plant cells need energy, can reproduce, and excrete waste.
An amoeba is a type of cell or unicellular organism which has the ability to alter its shape,
primarily by extending and retracting pseudopods
Paramecium are unicellular ciliates, and are widespread in freshwater, brackish, and marine
environments and are often very abundant in stagnant basins and ponds.
Euglena are single-celled flagellated (i.e., having a whiplike appendage) microorganisms that
feature both plant and animal characteristics.
Viruses do not reproduce, rather they replicate. Viruses ARE NOT considered to be living
Viruses may be spread through contact or through the air, depending on the particular virus.
Homeostasis is the maintenance of a stable internal environment.
There are more bacteria in the world than all other living things combined.
Grass, Phytoplankton, and cyanobacteria are examples of autotrophs.
The paramecium uses its cilia for movement and to help obtain food. The cilia sweeps the food
into the oral groove of the paramecium.
Amoebas use Pseudopods for movement.
A euglena has a flagellum and a paramecium has cilia for movement.
Microorganisms help to break down waste, help release nutrients into the soil, and are used to
help make antibiotics.
Antibiotics are made from bacteria and are used to kill bacteria.
Both euglenas and volvox are classified as plant-like protists. The cell wall found in plant cells
is also found in volvox cells but not in euglena cells.
Infectious diseases include tuberculosis, influenza, diphtheria, and meningitis.
Some bacteria are good for you. Examples would be the bacteria found in cheese, yogurt, and
Yeast is a fungi that can be both harmful and beneficial. It is beneficial in making bread rise but
it harmful as a parasite in athlete’s foot.
Archaea is a bacterium that is found to live in only the harshest of environments.
Prokaryote cells DO NOT have a nucleus. Eukaryote cell contain a nucleus.
An epidemic is the rapid spread of disease to a large number of people in a given population
within a short period of time.
A pandemic is an infectious disease that has spread across a large region, for instance multiple
continents or worldwide, affecting a substantial number of people.
The ease of travel has increased the spread of diseases across countries and around the world.
Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.